Shrunken heads were produced by the Jivaro tribe of the Amazon River forests of southeastern Ecuador and northeastern Peru. Trophies of war, they were believed to be powerful talismans. (Since the skull itself would not shrink, it was removed prior to boiling and other treatment.) At left in the photo at left an apparently genuine shrunken head is depicted in a photo from an album ca. 1942-1944. Here is an imitation shrunken fashioned of goat skin produced by the Jivaros for commercial purposes.